The assembly of a number of individual gas pipettes of the. Hempel type for a special purpose, as in the ordinary Orsat apparatus for flue gas analysis, is familiar. 3 INTRODUCTION To have proper control on combustion process, an idea about complete or complete combustion of fuel is made by the analysis of flue gas. Determination of calorific value of a fuel by Bomb calorimeter. ➢ Flue gas analysis by ORSAT apparatus. ➢ Study of valve timing diagram of Diesel Engine.

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Flue Gas Analysis by Orsat Apparatus | Combustion | Thermodynamics

Then as before, consider 1 kg fuel to contain carbon Chydrogen Hsulphur S and oxygen O and the products of combustion will be.

The absorption bulbs are usually filled with glass tubes, so that the surface area of contact between the gas and the solution is increased. Instruments used in medical laboratories. Note here that hydrogen has to be considered for finding the total oxygen required. N 2 will depend on this total oxygen required.

Table given below will show this procedure of converting volumetric analysis into gravimetric analysis. The same technique is repeated for oxygen, using the pyrogallol, and carbon monoxide using the ammoniacal cuprous chloride.

This is because the absorbent used for O2 i. The three way cock is open and the sample of flue gas is drawn in the measuring bottle. Published by Danielle Flores Modified over 5 years ago. The condition required for this method is that the formation of free carbon does not take place.

The base of the gas burette is connected to a levelling bottle to enable readings to be taken at constant pressure and to transfer the gas to and from the absorption media.

The gas is again sent to the burette. These methods will be better understood with the help of illustrative examples. CO2 first, O2 second and CO last.

Generally, the composition of solid or liquid fuels is expressed by weight, whereas that of the gaseous fuels is expressed by volume. Its indirect measurement can be done if we know the volumetric analysis of the dry flue gas. After writing the combustion equation, we can proceed to balance the hydrogen also and the unknown.


The sample of gas is returned to eudiometer and cock a is closed by keeping the reagent to its original level of solution.

Flue Gas Analysis by Orsat Apparatus | Combustion | Thermodynamics

Firstly, the existing air or the gas is expelled from the eudiometer by raising the aspirating bottle and keeping three way valve open to atmosphere. Dean—Stark Soxhlet extractor Kipp’s.

In the power plants the amount of fuel used is very large and consequently the amount of air supplied to a boiler furnace is also great and so it cannot be measured directly. Hence, it is necessary that the flue gas is passed first through potassium hydroxide bulb, where CO2 is absorbed, then through alkaline pyrogallic acid bulb, when only O2 will be absorbed because CO2 apparatue already been removed and finally through ammonical cuprous chloride bulb, where only CO will be absorbed.

Year 10 C Pathway Mr. Calculate the atomic ratio of C: When H 2 O vapours are excluded from the analysis, then the products of combustion are known as Dry Products of Combustion and in practice we consider the dry products appratus combustion.

The aspirating bottle is lowered so that the eudiometer reads zero on graduated scale. Each pipette is made of two pipettes joined together by a glass tube at the bottom as shown.


Since one mole of any gas occupies the same volume under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. Registration Forgot your password? Acid solvent cabinet Biosafety cabinet Fire blanket Fire extinguisher Fume hood. STEP 3 The volumes of O2 and CO are similarly determined by passing the remaining gas through alkaline pyrogallic acid bulb and ammonical cuprous chloride bulb respectively.

Now the three way cock is kept in the closed position. The three-way stop-cock is now connected to the flue gas supply and the reservoir is lowered to draw in the gas, to be analysed, in the burette. Quantity of sulphur dioxide is negligibly small and the water vapours are condensed and do not enter the flue gas. The graduated burette is surrounded by a water-jacket to keep the temperature of the gas constant during the experiment.


With the exclusion of the H 2 O vapours, the table will be slightly modified accordingly.

Orsat gas analyser – Wikipedia

OK Air Quality Revision. We will convert this volumetric analysis into gravimetric analysis and then the procedure is same as the above article. STEP 2 The stopper of the absorption bulb, containing caustic potash solution, is opened and all the gas is forced into this bulb by raising the water reservoir.

Retrieved from ” https: Now the cock a is opened and the sample of the gas qnalysis forced into the first reagent pipette containing KOH by raising the aspirating bottle. The three-way stop-cock is opened to the atmosphere and reservoir is raised, till the burette is completely filled with water and air is excluded from the burette.

For balancing purpose, we have to consider the moles of H 2 O produced: When H 2 O vapours are included in the exhaust or flue gases, then the products of combustion are wet.

Thus, i if the gases contain considerable amount of carbon monoxide, it indicates that incomplete combustion is occurring i.

Aspirating bottle is moved up and down several times to ensure the complete absorption of CO 2 by KOH solution in reagent pipette. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Beaker Gas syringe Vial. And the percentage volumetric analysis of the dry products of combustion is given as. The lower end of the burette is connected to a water reservoir by means of a long rubber tubing. The unabsorbed gas is finally taken back to the burette, till the level of solution in the CO2 absorption bulb stands at the constant mark and then, its stop-cock is closed.